I think the only thing a guy can tell within seconds of meeting a girl is whether he's attracted to her physically or not. Simply because, all of those things have to do with regards of a girls personality, and seeing as though first impressions can be deceiving, he won't know if he truly likes her until he gets to know her better either.
No. He might classify instantly as wife material/hookup based on how attractive (higher standards for wife) and perhaps level of overt sexuality (too high makes some guys think hookup, too low makes some guys think neither).
I've never been able to determine this information at first sight of seeing a girl... I've always had to know her before I knew which one she was.
Usually when I made an assumption at first sight it was wrong anyway lol
No. They are judging someone. I'm sure there are situations where you can tell.. If I met a guy and he chained smoked, said the F word every other word, was eating fast food.. I wouldn't want to date him or have his babies. But to say that you can tell with everyone is silly, some people seem great, but have some dark secrets, and some people may seem plain and shy, but be absolutely wonderful.