Sometimes I feel like... it's not really that the capability between people is as different as we think it is.
It's more about one person maybe getting better education, or better opportunities.
For example, let's say there is a child who is educated at a private school (best in the country) they will most likely be more capable than the average student. Or if someone who is really smart doesn't go to University, the person who has gone will be more book-smart more often than not.
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You are incorrect. Genetics represent about 80% of a person's intelligence capability. The more research in this area, the more the findings are to strengthen that correlation, to the point that many people are becoming uncomfortable. What does equality mean when genetics is 80% or more of the outcome?
The reason why it seems like those who grew up in affluent public and good private schools are so much smarter is because their parents were smart enough to do well. Smart parents means it is more likely to have smart children.
The reason why it seems like those who grew up poor are not nearly as intelligent is because their parents are probably not smart and they are not likely to have smart children.
60 years ago, the limiting factor was opportunity and hunger. There was not as much correlation between innate intelligence and wealth because smart people may not have the opportunity to develop it and dumb people had to work too in order to eat. Now, everyone has the chance to attend higher education regardless of ability to pay and there are no more racial barriers. The result is that smarter people migrate to high paying careers and dumb people are not working at all. The new segregation by intelligence means smart people are marrying smart people and dumb people are not getting married at all, amplifying the difference in income.
It is easy to prove you are incorrect. Imagine picking any random slow child. There is no way you can turn him into a rocket scientist or doctor. Therefore, your assertion is wrong.
On the other hand, bright kids show their stuff at an early age. There is a smart gene among Ashkenazi Jews and many east Asians. There is a math gene. (technically, these are more than one gene, it is a collection).
Your confusion is probably that success has several factors: Intelligence, motivation, and opportunity. A person with average intelligence and high motivation can do very well, and a person with high intelligence and low motivation may do poorly.
What we need to do is to identify those individuals who are genetically very capable and get them the opportunities they need to develop it at an early age. On the flip side, we need to stop wasting resources on those who are lower than 2 sigma below mean.0