Most Helpful Guy
The left-most sign is the treble clef, which means the music will be the normal range of notes. The numbers make up the time signature. This will indicate how many notes will be in each measure and how many counts per note.
With the right most sign, the note is on B (side lesson: On the treble clef, the notes on lines are E, G, B, D, and F. The way to remember that is to make it an acronym. The one I was taught was Every Good Boy Does Fine. The notes in the spaces are F, A, C, and E, which spells "face". Self-explanatory).
The sign accompanying the note means the note will be flat, meaning it will be a half-step below the natural. A "#" will indicate a sharp, meaning it will be a half-step higher than the natural note. A famous example, perhaps THE most famous example of half-step changes would be the theme from Jaws.1