Who cares WHY he got so angry ? It's the fact that he called you such horrible names ! If his temper is THIS violent NOW, don't expect it to get better. It's going to get progressively worse, eventually ending in physical violence and emotional abuse; not just verbal. Believe me: I know.
Tell this SOB to get the hell out of your life. Oh, and just HOW did he keep you from leaving ?!? Sounds like a control freak. If he threatened you, go to the police and make a statement. That's not the same as pressing charges. You just want it documented with them IN CASE he tries to stalk you. You'll have a precedent. Make SURE you get a copy and keep it in a safe place so he won't find it (Parents' house, sibling's house, etc.) if he were to somehow get in your house. If he threatened to commit suicide, that's not your problem. You can report that too, if you want. If you were to give in to that threat (and it is just that: A THREAT), he'd have you under his thumb for all eternity. Well, it would FEEL like it anyway.
Also, it sounds like you busted him on something and he got all defensive. What if you'd done something to REALLY make him mad ? I'm scared FOR you. Been there. Done that.
Plus, it sounds like he doesn't "fight" fair. If you are in an argument, you don't re-hash old wounds. People only do that when they are losing an argument. Sounds even more like you really struck a nerve. (Good for you for being so intuitive !)
Bottom line: Get some self-respect. Don't be the doormat he uses to wipe the $#!+ from his shoes. You deserve WAY better.
Don't waste another minute with him. If you can break it off tonight, I would HIGHLY suggest making a clean break. MAKE SURE you let someone know what you're doing and where you'll be. DO NOT let him talk you into getting into a vehicle with him. Preferably, break up in a PUBLIC place; have a friend (or two or three) drive with you there and wait for you in the car. Safety in numbers, Chick.
Good luck. Let us know as an addition to your post (OR in the comments) how things went.