I think things would be pretty similar to today, come to think of it?
Most Helpful Guys
The Syrians, Egyptians and Jordanians would just fight over the area that we now know as Israel.
The matter of fact is that Israel is only involved in actually a tiny bit of the armed conflicts in the Middle East. Most conflicts in the Middle East have been between Islamic states, within them (coups) or interventions of the West. Leaving out the humiliations of the Arabs in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, the wars Israel fought were of little consequence.
So yeah, it would still be a war-torn region with genocide, flourishing dictatorships, wars between the countries there, ethnic conflicts, civil wars and the lot.
"Wars between the Arabs and Iran"
That already happened.
We already have proxy wars between Iran and Arabs too, Yemen and Syria for example. We also have a ton of expulsions and genocides going on against Yazidis and Christians, hardly an alternate history.
The only difference would be the area known as Israel would be a third world nation and there would be more Jews in Europe and the U. S.
Most Helpful Girl
Not much different than it is today! These people have been fighting each other since the beginning of time and apparently that is never going to stop with their fucked up beliefs with the most radical groups.