Most Helpful Girl
I think it actually depends more on the environment. The Jedi wear robes like that wherever they are because they're the science fantasy equivalent of monks and that's what we're meant to think of when we see them.
On Tattooine, it makes sense for them to wear outfits like that. The environments are similar to that you find in the middle east. It's a matter of being practical but if you think about it, most of the characters are just wearing what's practical and expected of them, not always middle eastern style if it doesn't fit the context.
Han doesn't have a fixed planet and he doesn't dress in middle eastern styled outfits, he's dressed kinda like the rogue traveller you'd expect him to be:
Lando also comes to mind. Lando doesn't wear middle eastern style clothing, he wears what you'd expect a fancy politician guy would wear. Again this supports the argument that the reason many characters wear middle eastern clothing is because it suits the environment (e. g. Tattooine) or the context (being a Jedi).
Padme is probably the third example I can think of. Her outfits are meant to show her high status. Since she has no reason to, she doesn't wear the middle eastern styled outfits.
So, yeah, basically my argument is that it's only some of the characters and when they do wear those outfits, it's in a context that is entirely logical. I don't think it's because Star Wars was necessarily influenced by middle eastern culture, I think it's just because those outfits are what people would wear in hot, sandy places or because our association with monks is long robes.1
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Most Helpful Guy
Because star wars is science fantasy, not science fiction. They wear clothing like that so that you could more easily think of them as these mysterious monk-like characters. Because otherwise, they'd have worn futuristic clothing.
That and budget. Such robes are easier to procure than the aforementioned futuristic clothing.
I mean, look at Darth Vader. The character is cool but you can't deny that his armour looks plain silly. If they had better technology and more money back when they made the original, perhaps this would have been Vader's design.