Assuming your job doesn't simply promote people based on seniority, if you are looking for a work promotion and more than likely, the raise to go with it, there are certain things you need to do in order to put yourself in the best light for your boss to see you as worthy of that promotion/raise.
1. Be the best employee you can be
Haul out that tried and true employee manual you haven't seen since you got to your job and review things like uniform, behavior, job requirements, or whatever is the case and make sure you are not only meeting those expectations, but exceeding them. If you are to report into work at 9:00am, maybe start arriving 15 to 30 minutes early so you can have time to just prepare for your day. Greet whomever is in the office or at your job at that time so others are aware of your presence and you being early to work. Make sure you are fully representing the company in a positive way by not trash talking a boss or co-workers to people in your workplace. Make sure you workspace is tidy and organized and your appearance is the same. If you have been slacking on employee policies, make sure you begin to adhere to them again.
2. Volunteer for more projects or to work overtime
No boss wants to promote someone who isn't really into making an extra effort at least once in a while. Work some over time, volunteer to work a weekend project, volunteer to do the extra task your boss might throw out to the office or talk to your boss about starting your own extra project or something that can improve the work place or employee productivity. It will show you are taking the initiative.
So some research online. Sign up at the company networking site. Talk to the people in the position you want about the job and what you can do to get where they are. They might have an ear with the boss and can put in a good word for you if the time comes and they can see you are working hard. Just make sure while you're busy thinking about and talking about the job you want, you aren't slacking on the one you currently have.
4. Acquire new skills or refresh old ones
If your new dream job is going to require you to do tasks you aren't normally accustomed to doing, practice ahead of time, go to some extra computer classes, learn how to do procedures you don't know how to do now. You may also inquire with your boss about taking on or attending meetings and such that address these skill sets.
5. Meet with your boss
Your boss may not even know that you are looking for a promotion. Schedule, don't just show up...schedule a meeting when s/he is not super busy or trying to finish a project of their own, and let them know point blank that you are setting your sites on promotion and would like to know what you can do to be the best candidate possible. If you are a poor employee at that point, you may need to do steps 1-4 for at least a few months to put yourself into a better light, but if you're already there, you can point out the things you have done and are doing in order to help yourself to get to that possible promotion. Ask what your boss is looking for in a candidate for promotion and what you can do that you are not already doing to get to that place. After the meeting, follow the plan or what has been outlined and check in every once in a while with either other employees or the boss on what you have been doing or what you can do in order to get a leg up.